Perhaps the greatest defeat in Roman history came in 216 BCE, as Rome was struggling against Carthage to become a Mediterranean superpower. The Carthaginian general Hannibal delivered a masterclass of strategy and tactics, proving himself one of the ancient world's most gifted commanders.
In September AD 9 half of Rome's Western army was ambushed in a German forest. Three legions, comprising some 25,000 men under the Roman General Varus, were wiped out by an army of Germanic tribes under the leadership of Arminius.
In one of the most decisive battles in history, a large Roman army under Valens, the Roman emperor of the East, is defeated by the Visigoths at the Battle of Adrianople in present-day Turkey. Two-thirds of the Roman army, including Emperor Valens himself, were overrun and slaughtered by the mounted barbarians.
The Carthaginians and their allies, led by Hannibal, surrounded and practically annihilated a larger Roman and Italian army under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. It is regarded as one of the greatest tactical feats in military history and one of the worst defeats in Roman history.
The Battle of Ravenna
The Battle of Ravenna, capital of the Western Roman Empire, between the Heruli under their King Odoacer and the remnants of the Western Roman army in Roman Italy occurred in early September 476, and represented a culminating event in the ongoing fall of the Western Roman Empire.
the Western Empire
Finally, in 476, the Germanic leader Odoacer staged a revolt and deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus. From then on, no Roman emperor would ever again rule from a post in Italy, leading many to cite 476 as the year the Western Empire suffered its death blow.
On 23 January 635 the Muslim army defeated the Romans at the Battle of Fahl, and then went on to capture the city.
Go see its side of the story. Roman conquerors tried to erase the past of this ancient Tunisian port city—but these historic sites shed light on the true glories of Carthage. From 650 B.C. to 146 B.C., Carthage was the most powerful trading and commercial city in the Mediterranean.
In 476 C.E. Romulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the west, was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer, who became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome.
Here, we delve into the darker side of Roman history by exploring the nine worst Roman emperors.Nero (54-68 AD) Nero's reign is infamous for its brutality and paranoia.Caligula (37-41 AD)Commodus (180-192 AD)Elagabalus (218-222 AD)Caracalla (198-217 AD)Tiberius (14-37 AD)Domitian (81-96 AD)Honorius (393-423 AD)
Corruption, the division of the empire, and invasion by Germanic tribes were the three main causes of the fall of Rome.
Rome's rule over Egypt officially began with the arrival of Octavian (later called Augustus) in 30 B.C., following his defeat of Marc Antony and Cleopatra in the battle at Actium.
Even as Rome was under attack from outside forces, it was also crumbling from within thanks to a severe financial crisis. Constant wars and overspending had significantly lightened imperial coffers, and oppressive taxation and inflation had widened the gap between rich and poor.
Corruption, the division of the empire, and invasion by Germanic tribes were the three main causes of the fall of Rome. Some scholars believe that there were other contributing factors as well.
Constantine and the Rise of Christianity
One of the many factors that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire was the rise of a new religion, Christianity. The Christian religion, which was monotheistic ran counter to the traditional Roman religion, which was polytheistic (many gods).
With the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires on the decline and strategically disadvantaged, Arab Muslim armies were able to quickly take over vast territories that once belonged to the Byzantines and Sasanians and even conquer beyond those territories to the east and west.
Hannibal is one of the greatest military generals in history, whose tactics are still studied to this day. He famously led a Carthaginian army, including 38 elephants, over the Alps and came within sniffing distance of Rome.
Over four days at the beginning of September AD 9, half of Rome's Western army was ambushed in a German forest and annihilated. Three legions, three cavalry units and six auxiliary regiments—some 25,000 men—were wiped out. It dealt a body blow to the empire's imperial pretensions and was Rome's greatest defeat.
While in this capacity, Arminius secretly plotted a Germanic revolt against Roman rule, which culminated in the ambush and destruction of three Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest.
Emperor: AD 138-161. Antoninus Pius is famous for the kindness and wisdom that characterized his not-so-brief reign.
Hannibal, who almost overpowered Rome, was considered Rome's greatest enemy.
Instead many historians point to a number of different problems combined that brought about the fall of the Roman Empire. There were 3 main reasons for the fall of Rome which are: political instability, economic and social problems, and finally a weakening of the frontier or border.
Romulus Augustulus, in full Flavius Momyllus Romulus Augustulus, (flourished 5th century ad), known to history as the last of the Western Roman emperors (475–476). In fact, he was a usurper and puppet not recognized as a legitimate ruler by the Eastern emperor.
The War of Actium (32–30 BC) was the last civil war of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony (assisted by Cleopatra and by extension Ptolemaic Egypt) and Octavian. In 32 BC, Octavian convinced the Roman Senate to declare war on the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
1. Invasions by Barbarian tribes. The most straightforward theory for Western Rome's collapse pins the fall on a string of military losses sustained against outside forces. Rome had tangled with Germanic tribes for centuries, but by the 300s “barbarian” groups like the Goths had encroached beyond the Empire's borders.